Publications

Published

J. Chen, K.F. Killam, and G.D. Bittner. 1964. Comparison of chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine and pentobarbital on conditioned arousal to reticular stimulation in cats. Fed. Proc. 23:264‑268.

G.D. Bittner. 1967. Excitation‑contraction coupling in crustacean neuromuscular systems. Ph.D. Thesis. Stanford University.

R.R. Hoy, G.D. Bittner, and D. Kennedy. 1967. Regeneration in crustacean motoneurons: evidence for axonal fusion. Science 156:251‑252.

G.D. Bittner. 1968. The differentiation of crayfish muscle fibers during development. J. Exp. Zool. 167:439‑456.

G.D. Bittner. 1968. Differentiation of nerve terminals in the crayfish opener muscle and its functional significance. J. Gen. Physiol. 51:731‑758.

G.D. Bittner and D. Kennedy. 1970. Quantitative aspects of transmitter release. J. Cell. Biol. 47:585‑590.

G.D. Bittner and J. Harrison. 1970. A reconsideration of the Poisson Hypothesis for transmitter release at the crayfish neuromuscular junction. J. Physiol. 206:1‑23.

H.L. Atwood and G.D. Bittner. 1971. Matching of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to crustacean muscle fibers. J. Neurophysiol. 34:157‑170.

H.L. Atwood, C.K. Govind, and G.D. Bittner. 1973. Ultrastructure of nerve terminals and muscle fibers in denervated crayfish muscle. Zeit. Zellforsch. 146:155‑166.

G.D. Bittner and R. Kopanda. 1973. Factors influencing molting in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. J. Exp. Zool. 186:7‑17.

G.D. Bittner. 1973. Trophic dependence of fiber diameter in a crustacean muscle. Exp. Neurol. 41:38‑53.

G.D. Bittner. 1973. Degeneration and regeneration in crustacean neuromuscular systems. Amer. Zool. 13:379‑408.

G.D. Bittner and A. Johnson. 1974. Degeneration and regeneration in crustacean peripheral nerves. J. Comp. Physiol. 89:1‑21.

L.P. Boone and G.D. Bittner. 1974. Morphological and physiological measures of trophic dependence in a crustacean muscle. J. Comp. Physiol. 89:123‑144.

G.D. Bittner, M. Ballinger, and J.L. Larimer. 1974. Crayfish CNS: minimal degenerative‑regenerative changes after lesioning. J. Exp. Zool. 189:13‑36.

M.P. Charlton and G.D. Bittner. 1974. Facilitation of transmitter release at the squid giant synapse. Biol. Bull. 147:471‑472.

D. Kennedy and G.D. Bittner. 1974. Ultrastructural correlates of motor nerve regeneration in the crayfish. Cell Tiss. Res. 148:97‑110.

G.D. Bittner and M. Nitzberg. 1975. Degeneration of sensory and motor axons in transplanted segments of a crustacean peripheral nerve. J. Neurocytol. 4:7‑21.

G.D. Bittner and D.W. Mann. 1976. Differential survival of isolated portions of crayfish axons. Cell and Tiss. Res. 169:301‑311.

S.C. Birse and G.D. Bittner. 1976. Regeneration of giant axons in earthworms. Brain Res. 113:575‑581.

G.D. Bittner and L. Sewell. 1976. Facilitation at crayfish neuromuscular junctions. J. Comp. Physiol. 109:287‑308.

G.D. Bittner. 1977. Trophic interactions of crustacean neurons. In: Identified Neurons and Behavior, Ed. by G. Hoyle in honor of Professor C.A.G. Wiersma. pp. 507‑532.

M.L. Ballinger and G.D. Bittner. 1978. Developmental abnormalities of identifiable neurons in the crayfish Procambarus simulans. J. Neurobiol. 9:301‑307.

G.D. Bittner and D.L. Traut. 1978. Growth of crustacean muscles: constancy of fiber number and sarcomere number. J. Comp. Physiol. 124:277‑285.

M.P. Charlton and G.D. Bittner. 1978. Effect of changes in presynaptic potentials on facilitation in squid synapses. J. Gen. Physiol. 72:487‑511.

M.P. Charlton and G.D. Bittner. 1978. Facilitation of transmitter release at squid synapses. J. Gen. Physiol. 72:471‑486.

M.R. Meyer and G.D. Bittner. 1978. Histological studies of trophic interactions in crayfish giant axons. Brain Res. 143:195‑211.

M.R. Meyer and G.D. Bittner. 1978. Biochemical studies of trophic interactions in crayfish giant axons. Brain Res. 143:212‑232.

M.L. Ballinger and G.D. Bittner. 1980. Ultrastructural studies of severed medial giant and other CNS axons in crayfish. Cell and Tiss. Res. 208:123‑133.

G.D. Bittner and M.L. Ballinger. 1980. Ultrastructural changes at gap junctions between lesioned crayfish axons. Cell and Tiss. Res. 207:143‑153.

D.A. Baxter and G.D. Bittner. 1980. The normal accumulation of facilitation during presynaptic inhibition. Brain Res. 189:535‑539.

T.E. Anderson and G.D. Bittner. 1980. Long‑term alteration of electrotonic synapses. Brain Res. 184:224‑228.

C.E. Hulsebosch and G.D. Bittner. 1980. Evolution of abilities to regenerate CNS neurons. Am. Naturalist 115:276‑284.

T.A. Viancour, G.D. Bittner and M.L. Ballinger, 1981. Selective transfer of Lucifer Yellow CH from axoplasm to adaxonal glia. Nature. 293:65‑67.

M.S. Bouton and G.D. Bittner. 1981. Regeneration of motor axons in crayfish limbs: distal stump activation followed by synaptic reformation. Cell and Tiss. Res. 219:379‑392.

G.D. Bittner and M.R. Brown. 1981. Long term survival of enucleated glial cytoplasm in the leech Macrobdella decora. Brain Res. 218:357‑364.

C.E. Hulsebosch and G.D. Bittner. 1981. Regeneration of nerve cell bodies in annelids: a test of the neuronal addition hypothesis. J. Comp. Neurol. 198:77‑88.

C.E. Hulsebosch and G.D. Bittner. 1981. Morphology and number of neurons in two species of polychaetes. J. Comp. Neurol. 198:65‑76.

S. Velez, G.D. Bittner, G.K. Govind and H.L. Atwood. 1981. Trophic reactions of crayfish muscle fibers and nerve synapses following denervation, tenotomy, and immobilization. Exp. Neurol. 71:307‑325.

S.C. Birse and G.D. Bittner. 1981. Regeneration of earthworm giant axons following transection or ablation. J. Neurophysiol. 45:724‑742.

G.D. Bittner and R.A. Schatz. 1981. An examination of the residual calcium hypothesis for transmitter release. Brain Res. 210:431‑436.

G.D. Bittner. 1981. Trophic interactions of crustacean giant axons. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 68A:299‑306.

R.M. Grossfeld, G.D. Bittner, and M.A. Raymond. 1982. Inter‑ and intra‑axonal variations in morphology and metabolic activity of the crayfish medial giant axon. J. Neurobiol. 13:191‑197.

D.A. Baxter and G.D. Bittner. 1982. Intracellular recordings from crustacean motor axons during presynaptic inhibition. Brain Res. 223:422‑428.

G.D. Bittner. 1983. Muscles and their neural control. Science 222:611‑613.

D.A. Baxter, G.D. Bittner, and T.H. Brown. 1985. Quantal mechanisms of long‑term synaptic potentiation. PNAS 82:5978‑5982.

G.D. Bittner, and J.P. Segundo. 1986. Facilitation. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Ed. G. Adelman. Birkhauser. p. 428-430.

G.D. Bittner, M.L. Ballinger, and M.A. Raymond. 1986. Reconnection of severed nerve axons with polyethylene glycol. Brain Res. 367:351‑365.

K.R. Seshan and G.D. Bittner. 1987. Developmental and other factors affecting regeneration of crayfish CNS axons. J. Comp. Neurol. 262:535-545.

T.A. Viancour, K.R. Seshan, G.D. Bittner, and R.A. Sheller. 1987. Organization of axoplasm in crayfish giant axons. J. Neurocytol. 16:557-566.

R.N. Friedman, G.D. Bittner, and J.A. Blundon. 1988. Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of ethanol on crayfish. J. Exp. Pharm. & Therap. 246:125-131.

G.D. Bittner. 1988. Long term survival of severed distal axonal stumps in vertebrates and invertebrates. Am. Zool. 28:1165-1179.

B.D. Winegar, G.D. Bittner, and S.W. Leslie. 1988. Effects of pentobarbital on behavioral and synaptic plasticities in crayfish. Brain Res. 475:21-27.

T.A Viancour, R.A. Sheller, G.D. Bittner, and K.R. Seshan. 1988. Protein transport between crayfish lateral giant axons. Brain Res. 439:211-221.

G.D. Bittner and J.P. Segundo. 1989. Effect of stimulus timing on transmitter release and postsynaptic membrane potential at crayfish neuromuscular junctions. J. Comp. Physiol. 165:371-382.

G.D. Bittner. 1989. Synaptic plasticity at the crayfish opener neuromuscular preparation. J. Neurobiol. 20:386-408.

J.A. Blundon, R.A. Sheller, J.W. Moehlenbruck, and G.D. Bittner. 1990. Effect of temperature on long term survival of anucleate giant axons in crayfish and goldfish. J. Comp. Neurol. 297:377-391.

T.L. Krause and G.D. Bittner. 1990. Rapid morphological fusion of severed myelinated axons by polyethylene glycol. PNAS. 87:1471-1475.

S. Sivaramakrishnan, G.D. Bittner, and M.S. Brodwick. 1991. Calcium-activated potassium conductance in presynaptic terminals at crayfish neuromuscular junction. J. Gen. Physiol. 98:1161-1180.

S. Sivaramakrishnan, M.S. Brodwick, and G.D. Bittner. 1991. Presynaptic facilitation at crayfish neuromuscular junctions: role of calcium-activated potassium conductance. J. Gen. Physiol. 98:1181-1196.

R.A. Sheller, M.L. Ballinger, and G.D. Bittner. 1991. Long term survival of severed crayfish giant axons is not associated with an incorporation of glial nuclei into axoplasm. Neurosci. Letters 133:113-116.

T.L. Krause, R.M. Marquis, A.W. Lyckman, M.L. Ballinger, and G.D. Bittner. 1991. Rapid artificial restoration of electrical continuity across a crush lesion of a giant axon. Brain Res. 561:350-353.

G.D. Bittner. 1991. Long term survival of anucleate axons and its implications for nerve regeneration. Trends in Neurosci. 14:188-193.

G.D. Bittner and D.A. Baxter. 1991. Mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at crayfish neuromuscular junctions: facilitation and augmentation. Synapse. 7:235-243.

D.A. Baxter and G.D. Bittner. 1991. Mechanisms of synaptic plasticity at crayfish neuromuscular junctions: pre-synaptic inhibition. Synapse 7:244-251.

A.W. Lyckman and G.D. Bittner. 1992. Axonal conduction and electrical coupling in regenerating earthworm giant axons. Exp Neurol. 117:299-306.

R.A. Sheller and G.D. Bittner. 1992. Maintenance and synthesis of proteins for an anucleate axon. Brain Res. 580:68-80.

A.W. Lyckman, S.M. Thomas and G.D. Bittner. 1992. Analysis of neuritic outgrowth from severed giant axons in Lumbricus terrestris. J. Comp. Neurol. 318:426-438.

J.A. Blundon and G.D. Bittner. 1992. Effects of ethanol and other drugs on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the crayfish. J. Neurophysiol. 67:576-587.

J.A. Blundon, S.N. Wright, M.S. Brodwick and G.D. Bittner. 1993. Residual free calcium is not responsible for facilitation of transmitter release. PNAS 90:9388-9392.

R.A. Sheller and G.D. Bittner. 1993. Whole intact tissue electrophoresis of nerve proteins. J. Neurosci. Methods 49:185-191.

J.W. Moehlenbruck, J.A. Cummings and G.D. Bittner. 1994. Long term survival followed by degradation of neurofilament proteins in severed Mauthner axons of goldfish. J. Neurobiol. 25:1637-1651.

T.L. Krause, H.M. Fishman, M.L. Ballinger, and G.D. Bittner. 1994. Extent and mechanism of sealing in transected giant axons of squid and earthworms. J. Neurosci. 14:6638-6651.

T.L. Krause, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1994. Axolemmal and septal conductance in the impedance of the earthworm medial giant nerve fiber. Biophys. J. 67:692-695.

M.A. Todora, H.M. Fishman T.L. Krause, and G.D. Bittner. 1994. Shortening of a severed squid giant axon is non-uniform and occurs in two phases. Neurosci. Lett. 179:57-59.

T.L. Krause, Y. Magarshak, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Membrane potential and input resistance are ambiguous measures of sealing of transected cable-like structures. Biophys. J. 68:795-799.

S.L. Tanner, E.E. Storm, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Protein transport in intact and severed (anucleate) crayfish medial giant axons. J. Neurochem. 64:1491-1501.

R.A. Sheller, M. Tytell, M. Smyers, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Glia to axon communication: Enrichment of glial proteins transferred to the squid giant axon. J. Neurochem. Res. 41:324-334.

S.L. Tanner, E.E. Storm, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Maintenance and degradation of proteins in intact and severed axons: Implications for the mechanism of long term survival of anucleate crayfish axons. J. Neurosci. 15:540-548.

T.D. Raabe, T. Nguyen, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Calcium activated proteolysis of neurofilament proteins in goldfish Mauthner axons. J. Neurobiol. 26:253-261. PubMed PMID: 7707045.

J.A. Blundon, S.N. Wright, M.S. Brodwick, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Presynaptic calcium-activated potassium channels and calcium channels at a crayfish neuromuscular synapse. J. Neurophysiol. 73:178-189.

T. Sea, M.L. Ballinger, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Cooling of peripheral myelinated axons retards Wallerian degeneration. Exp. Neurol. 133:85-95.

C.S. Eddleman, C.M. Godell, H.M. Fishman, M. Tytell, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Florescent labelling of the glial sheath of giant nerve fibers. Biol. Bull., 189:218-219.

H.M. Fishman, T.L. Krause, A.L. Miller, and G.D. Bittner. 1995. Retardation of the spread of extracellular Ca++ into transected, unsealed squid giant axons. Biol. Bull., 189:208-209.

T.D. Raabe and G.D. Bittner. 1996. Phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins in isolated goldfish Mauthner axoplasm. J. Neurochem., 66:1214-1221.

C.B. Herbert, G.D. Bittner, and J. A. Hubbell. 1996. Effects of fibrinolysis on neurite growth from dorsal root ganglia cultured in two- and three-dimensional fibrin gels. J. Comp. Neurol., 365:380-391. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19960212)365:3<380::AID-CNE4>3.0.CO;2-0. PubMed PMID: 8822177.

T.D. Raabe, T. Nguyen, C. Archer, and G.D. Bittner. 1996. Mechanisms for the maintenance and eventual degradation of neurofilament proteins in the distal segments of severed goldfish Mauthner axons. J. Neurosci., 16: 1605-1613. PubMed PMID: 8774429.

S.N. Wright, M.S. Brodwick, and G.D. Bittner. 1996. Presynaptic calcium currents at voltage- clamped excitor and inhibitor terminals of crayfish. J. Physiol., 496:347-361. PubMed PMID: 8910221; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC1160882.

S.N. Wright, M.S. Brodwick, and G.D. Bittner. 1996. Calcium currents, transmitter release and facilitation of release at voltage-clamped crayfish nerve terminals . J. Physiol. ,496:361-378. PubMed PMID: 8910222; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC1160883

O. Weiner, A.M. Zorn, P.A. Krieg, and G.D. Bittner.1996 Medium-weight neurofilament mRNA in goldfish Mauthner axoplasm. Neurosci. Letters, 213: 83-86. PubMed PMID: 8858614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC2830807.

A. Sunio and G.D. Bittner. 1997. Cyclosporin retards the Wallerian degeneration of peripheral mammalian axons. Exp. Neurol., 146:46 - 56. doi: 10.1006/exnr.1997.6484. PubMed PMID: 9225737.

S. Eddleman, M.L. Ballinger, M.E. Smyers, C.M. Godell, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1997. Repair of plasmalemmal lesions by vesicles. PNAS. 94:4745-4750. PubMed PMID: 9114062; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC20795.

C.M. Godell, M. Ballinger, C.S. Eddleman, M.E. Smyers, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1997. Calpain promotes the sealing of severed giant axons. PNAS. 94:4751-4756. PubMed PMID: 9114063.

M.L. Ballinger, A.R. Blanchette, T.L. Krause, M.E. Smyers, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1997 Delaminating myelin membranes help seal the cut ends of severed earthworm giant axons. J. Neurobiol., 33: 945-960. PubMed PMID: 9407015.

C.B. Herbert, C. Nagaswami, G.D. Bittner, J.A. Hubbell, and J.W. Weisel. 1998. Effects of fibrin micro-morphology on neurite growth from dorsal root ganglia cultured within three- dimensional fibrin gels. J. Biomed. Materials Res., 40: 551-559. PubMed PMID: 9599031

R.A. Sheller, M.E. Smyers, R.M. Grossfeld, M.L. Ballinger, and G.D. Bittner. 1998. Heat shock proteins in crayfish medial giant axons: High constitutive levels and transfer of inducible isoforms from glia. J. Comp. Neurol. 396:1-11. PubMed PMID: 9623883.

S. Eddleman, M.L. Ballinger, M.E. Smyers, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1998. Endocytotic formation of vesicles and other membranous structures induced by Ca2+ and axoplasmic injury. J. Neurosci. 18:4029-4041. PubMed PMID: 9592084.

C.S. Eddleman, M.E. Smyers, A.Lore, H.M. Fishman and G.D. Bittner. 1998. Anomalies associated with dye exclusion as a measure of axolemmal repair. Neurosci. Letters. 256: 123-126. PubMed PMID: 9855355.

A.B.Lore, J.A.Hubbell, D.S. Bobb Jr., M.L.Ballinger, K.L. Loftin, , J.W.Smith, M.E. Smyers, H.D.Garcia and G.D. Bittner. 1999. Rapid induction of functional and morphological continuity between severed ends of mammalian or earthworm myelinated axons. J Neurosci. 19: 2442 – 2454. PubMed PMID: 10087059.

A.R. Blanchette, M.L. Ballinger, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 1999. Calcium entry initiates processes that restore a barrier to dye entry in severed earthworm axons. Neuroscience Letters. 272:147-150. PubMed PMID: 10505602.

G.D. Bittner, T. Schallert, and J. D. Peduzzi. 2000. Degeneration, trophic interactions, and repair of severed axons: . A reconsideration of some common assumptions. The Neuroscientist. 6: 88 - 109. .

G.D. Bittner and H.M. Fishman. 2000. Axonal sealing following injury. Invited chapter in Nerve Regeneration. Ed. N. Ingoglia and M. Murray. Marcel Dekker. P. 337 - 370

G.D. Bittner and B.X. Friedman. 2000. Evolution of brain structures and adaptive behaviors in humans and other animals: role of polymorphic genetic variations. The Neuroscientist. 6: 241 - 251

J. W. Lichstein, M.L. Ballinger, A.R. Blanchette, H.M. Fishman, and G.D. Bittner. 2000. Structural changes at the cut ends of earthworm giant axons in the interval between dye barrier formation and neuritic outgrowth. J. Comp. Neurol. 416: 143-157. PubMed PMID: 10581462 .

C.S. Eddleman, E. Detrait, G.D. Bittner, and H.M. Fishman. 2000. Barrier permeability at cut axonal ends progressively decreases until an axonal seal is formed. Biophys. J., 79: 1883 - 1890. . doi: 10.1016/S0006-3495(00)76438-1. PubMed PMID: 11023894; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC1301080.

E. Detrait, C.S. Eddleman, S. Yoo, M. Fukuda, G.D. Bittner, and H.M. Fishman. 2000. Axolemmal repair requires proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle fusion. J. Neurobiol. 44:382 - 391. PubMed PMID: 10945894.

E. Detrait, S. Yoo, C.S. Eddleman, M. Fukuda, G.D. Bittner, and H.M. Fishman. 2000. Repair of severed neurites of PC 12 cells requires divalent cations and a conserved region of synaptotagmin. J. Neuroscience Research. 62: 566 – 573. PubMed PMID: 11070500.

T. C. Marzullo, J.S. Britt, R. Stavisky, and G. D. Bittner. 2001. Cooling enhances in vitro survival and fusion-repair of severed axons taken from the peripheral and central nervous system of rats. Neuroscience Letters. 327: 9-12. PubMed PMID: 12098488.

C.Z. Yang and G.D. Bittner. 2002. Effects of some dietary phytoestrogens in animal studies: review of a confusing landscape. Lab Anim (NY). 2002;31(9):43-8. doi: 10.1038/5000192. PubMed PMID: 12271330

C.S. Eddleman, G.D. Bittner, and H.M. Fishman. 2003. SEM comparison of severed ends of giant axons isolated from squid (Loligo pealei) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Biol Bull. 203: 219 – 220. PubMed PMID: 12414587.

H.M. Fishman and G.D. Bittner. 2003. Vesicle-mediated restoration of a plasmalemmal barrier in severed axons. News in Physiological Sciences. 18:115-118. PubMed PMID: 12750447.

S. Yoo, M. P. Nguyen, M. Fukuda, G. D. Bittner, and H. M. Fishman. 2003. Plasmalemmal sealing of transected mammalian neurites is a gradual process mediated by Ca-regulated proteins. J. Neurosci. Res. 74:541-551. doi: 10.1002/jnr.10771. PubMed PMID: 14598298

R. C. Stavisky, J. M. Britt, T. Pham, T. C. Marzullo and G. D. Bittner. 2003. Wallerian Degeneration of mammalian PNS and CNS axons is accelerated by incubation with protein synthesis inhibitors. Neuroscience Res. 47: 445 – 449. doi: 10.1006/exnr.1997.6484. PubMed PMID: 9225737.

S. Yoo, J.E, Bottenstein, G. D. Bittner, and H. M. Fishman. 2004. Survival of mammalian B104 cells following neurite transection at different locations depends on somal calcium concentration. J. Neurobiol. 60: 137-153. doi: 10.1002/neu.20005. PubMed PMID: 15266646

R.C. Stavisky, J.M. Britt, A. Zuzek, E. Truong and G.D. Bittner. 2005. Melatonin enhances the in vitro and in vivo repair of severed rat sciatic axons. Neurosci. Letters, 376:98-101. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.11.033. PubMed PMID: 15698928.

M.G. Nguyen, G.D. Bittner, and H.M. Fishman. 2005. Critical interval of somal calcium transient after neurite transaction determines B104 cell survival. J. Neurosci. Res.,81: 805-816. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20606. PubMed PMID: 16049977; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC1237108.

J.M. Britt, J.R. Kane, C.S. Spaeth, A. Zuzek, G.L. Robinson, M.Y. Gbanaglo, C.J. Estler, E.A. Boydston, T. Schallert and G.D. Bittner. 2010. Polyethylene glycol rapidly restores axonal integrity and improves the rate of motor behavior recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury. J Neurophysiol. 104: 695-703. doi: 10.1152/jn.01051.2009. PubMed PMID: 20445038.

C.S. Spaeth, E.A. Boydston, L.A. Figard, A. Zuzek and G.D. Bittner. 2010. A model for sealing plasmalemmal damage in neurons and other eukaryotic cells. J. Neurosci. 30:15790-15800. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4155-10.2010. PubMed PMID: 21106818.

C. Z. Yang, S. I. Yaniger, V. C. Jordan, D. Klein and G.D. Bittner. 2011. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved. Environmental Health Perspectives 119: 989-996. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003220. Epub 2011 Mar 2

S. Spaeth, J.D. Fan, E.B. Spaeth, T. Robison, R.W. Wilcott and G.D. Bittner. 2012. Neurite transection produces cytosolic oxidation which enhances plasmalemmal repair. J Neurosci Res. 90:945-954. doi: 10.1002/neu.20005. PubMed PMID: 15266646.

C.S. Spaeth, E.B. Spaeth, R.W.Wilcott, J.D.Fan, T.Robison and G.D. Bittner. 2012. Pathways for plasmalemmal repair mediated by PKA, Epac and cytosolic oxidation in rat B104 cells in vitro and rat sciatic axons ex vivo. Devel Neurol. 72:1399-1414. doi: 10.1002/dneu.20998. PubMed PMID: 22076955.

C.S. Spaeth, T.Robison, J.D.Fan and G.D. Bittner. 2012. Cellular mechanisms of plasmalemmal sealing and axonal repair by polyethylene glycol and methylene blue. J Neursosci Res. 90:955-966. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23022. PubMed PMID: 22302626.

G.D. Bittner, C.P. Keating, J. R. Kane , J.M. Britt, C.S. Spaeth,, J. D. Fan, A. Zuzek R.W. Wilcott, W. P. Thayer, J.M. Winograd, F. Gonzalez-Lima and T. Schallert . 2012. Rapid, effective and long-lasting behavioral recovery produced by microsutures, methylene blue and polyethylene glycol after complete cut of rat sciatic nerves. J Neurosci Res. 90:967-980. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23023. PubMed PMID: 22302646.

K.W. Sexton, A.C. Pollins, N. L. Cardwell, G. A. Del Corral, G. D. Bittner, R. B. Shack, L. B. Nanney, W. P. Thayer. 2012. Hydrophilic polymers enhance early functional outcomes after nerve autografting. J. Surgical Res. 177:392-400. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2012.03.049. PubMed PMID: 22521220; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4096106.

A. Zuzek, J.D. Fan, C. S. Spaeth, G.D. Bittner. 2013. Sealing of transected neurites of rat B104 cells requires a diacylglycerol PKC-dependent pathway and a PKA-dependent pathway. Cell Molec Neurosci. 33:31-46. doi: 10.1007/s10571-012-9868-5. Epub 2012 Aug 3.

C.L. Rodriguez-Feo, K.W. Sexton, R. B. Boyer, A. C. Pollins, N. L. Cardwell, L. B. Nanney,R. B. Shack, M. A. Mikesh, C. H. McGill, C. W. Driscoll, G. D. Bittner, W. P. Thayer. 2013. Blocking the P2X7 Receptor Improves Outcomes After Axonal Fusion. J. Surgical Research. 184(1):705-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.04.082. PubMed PMID: 23731685; PubMed Central PMCID:.

C.Z. Yang, W. Casey, M. Stoner, G.J .Kollessery, A.W. Wong and G.D. Bittner, 2014. A robotic MCF-7:WS8 cell proliferation assay to detect agonist and antagonist estrogenic activity. Toxological Sci. 137:335-349. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft250. PubMed PMID: 24213142; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3908721.

S.L. Myers, C.Z.Yang, G.D. Bittner, K.L. Witt, R.R. Tice, D.D. Baird. 2014. Estrogenic and Anti-Estrogenic Activity of Off –The-Shelf Hair and Skin Products. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. 25:271-277. doi: 10.1038/jes.2014.32. PubMed PMID: 24849798.

M.A.Stoner, C.Z.Yang, and G.D.Bittner. 2014. A Robotic BG1Luc Reporter Assay to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists. Toxicology in Vitro. 28: 916–925. . doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2014.03.013. PubMed PMID: 24747293; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4088324

G.D.Bittner, M. A. Stoner, C. Z. Yang. 2014. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products. Environmental Health 13:41-54. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-41. PubMed PMID: 24886603; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4063249.

G.D. Bittner, M.S. Denison, C. Z. Yang, M.A.Stoner, G. He. 2014. Chemicals having estrogenic activity can be released from some BPA-free, hard and clear, thermoplastic resins. Environmental Health. 13:103-121. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-41. PubMed PMID: 24886603; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4063249.

D.C. Riley, G.D. Bittner, M.A. Mikesh, N.L. Cardwell, A.C. Pollins, C.L. Ghergherehchi, S.R. Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, T.N. Ha, B.T.D. Hall, A.D. Poon, M. Pyarali, R.B. Boyer, A.T. Mazal, N. Munoz, R.C. Trevino, T.Schallert, W.P. Thayer. 2015. Polyethylene glycol--fused allografts produce rapid behavioral recovery after ablating sciatic nerve segments. J Neurosci Res. Apr;93(4):572-83. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23514. PubMed PMID: 25425242; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4329031.

G.D. Bittner, K.K. Rokkappanavar, J.D. Peduzzi. 2015. Application and implications of PEG-fusion as a novel technology to repair injured spinal cords. Neural Regeneration Research. 10:1406-1408.

G.D. Bittner, D.R. Sengelaub, R.C. Trevino, J.D. Peduzzi, M. Mikesh, C.L. Ghergherehchi, T.Schallert, W.P. Thayer. 2016. The curious ability of PEG-fusion technologies to restore lost behaviors after nerve severance. J Neurosci Res. 94: 207-230. online 3 Nov.2015. doi. 1002/jnr 23685

C. L. Ghergherehchi, G. D. Bittner, R. L. Hastings, M. Mikesh, D. C. Riley, R. C. Trevino, T. Schallert, W. P. Thayer , S. Raju Bhupanapadu Sunkesula,, T-A. N. Ha\, N. Munoz, M. Pyarali, A. Bansal, A. D. Poon, A. T. Mazal, T. A. Smith, N. S. Wong, P. J. Dunne. 2016. Effects of extracellular calcium and surgical techniques on restoration of axonal continuity by PEG-fusion following complete cut- or crush-severance of rat sciatic nerves. J Neurosci Res. 94:231-245. Doi. 10.1002/jnr23704.

G.D. Bittner, M. Mikesh, C. L. Ghergherehchi. 2016. PEG-fusion retards Wallerian degeneration and rapidly restores behaviors lost after nerve severance. Neural Regen. Res. 11:217-219. Doi 10.4103/1673-5374.177716.

C.H. McGill, S. R. Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, A.D. Poon, M. Mikesh, G. D. Bittner. 2016. Sealing Frequency of B104 Cells Declines Exponentially with Decreasing Transection Distance from the Axon Hillock. Exp. Neurol. 279:149-158. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.02.001.

George D. Bittner, Christopher S. Spaeth, Andrew D. Poon, Zachary S. Burgess, Christopher H. McGill. 2016. Repair of traumatic plasmalemmal damage to neurons and other eukaryotic cells. Neu. Regen. Res. 11:1033-1042. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.187019.

G.D. Bittner, D.R. Sengelaub, R.C. Trevino, C.L. Ghergherehchi, M. Mikesh. 2017. Robinson and Madison have published no data on whether polyethylene glycol fusion repair prevents reinnervation accuracy in rat peripheral nerve. J Neurosci Res. 95:863-866. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23849.

GD Bittner, DL Sengelaub, CL Ghergherehchi. 2018. Conundrums and confusions regarding how PEG-fusion produces excellent behavioral recovery after peripheral nerve injuries. Neural Regeneration Research. 13: 53-57. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.224363.

Andrew D. Poon, Sarah H. McGill, Solomon Raju Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Zachary S. Burgess, Patrick J. Dunne, Edward E. Kang and George D Bittner. 2019. CaMKII and DMSO affect the sealing frequencies of transected hippocampal neurons. J. Neurosci. Res. 96:1208-1222. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24232.

Mikesh M, Ghergherehchi CL, Hastings RL, Ali A, Rahesh S, Jagannath K, Sengelaub DR, Trevino RC, Jackson DM, Bittner GD. 2018. Polyethylene glycol solutions rapidly restore and maintain axonal continuity, neuromuscular structures and behaviors lost after sciatic nerve transections in female rats. J. Neurosci. Res. 96: 1223-1242. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24225.

Mikesh M, Ghergherehchi CL, Rahesh S, Jagannath K, Ali A, Sengelaub DR, Trevino RC, Jackson DM, Tucker HO, Bittner GD. 2018. Polyethylene glycol treated allografts not tissue matched nor immunosuppressed rapidly repair sciatic nerve gaps, maintain neuromuscular functions, and restore voluntary behaviors in female rats. J. Neurosci. Res. 96:1243- 1264. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24227.

Ghergherehchi CL, Mikesh M, Sengelaub DR, Jackson DM, Smith T, Shores JT, Bittner GD. (2019) Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and other bioactive solutions with neurorrhaphy for rapid and dramatic repair of peripheral nerve lesions by PEG-fusion. J Neurosci Methods. 314:1-12. NIHMS1518360, Publ.ID: NSM8215. Doi n1-.1016/jneumeth.2018.12.20.15

Bittner GD, Ghergherehchi CL, Mikesh M. 2019 Surgical Technique and Other Protocols Used Probably Did Not Induce Polyethylene Glycol Fusion of Rat Facial Nerves. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. ;21(1):81. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2018.1126

Vargas SA and Bittner GD. 2019. Natural mechanisms and artificial PEG-induced mechanism that repair traumatic damage to the plasmalemma in eukaryotes. Current Topics in Membranes: Plasma Membrane Repair. 84: 129-167.

Ghergherehchi CL, Sengelaub DR, Mikesh M, Shores JT, Bittner GD. 2019. Alterations in spinal connectivity and remodeling of motoneuron dendritic morphology after sciatic nerve transection with polyethylene glycol axon fusion repair. PLOS One. 14(10): 1-27 e0223443. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223443.

Bittner G, Ghergherehchi C, Mikesh M, Senglelaub D, Trevino R, Shores J. 2019. Salomone et al did not induce PEG-fusion repair of severed rat facial nerves. Head Neck. 2019 Oct;41(10):3737-3739. doi: 10.1002/hed.25894. Epub 2019 Aug 9. PMID:31400039.

Smith TA, Ghergherehchi CL, Mikesh M, Shores JT, Tucker HO, Bittner GD. 2020. Polyethylene glycol-fusion repair of sciatic allografts in female rats achieve immunotolerance via attenuated innate and adaptive responses. J Neurosci. Res. 98:2468-2495. PMID: 33008419; PMCID: PMC7532577.

Smith TA Ghergherehchi CL, Tucker HO, G. D. Bittner GD.. 2020. Coding transcriptome analyses reveal altered functions underlying immunotolerance of PEG-fused rat sciatic nerve allografts. J. Neuroinflammation. 17:287-311. doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01953-8. PMID: 32931034.

Ghergherehchi CL, Shores JT, Alderete J, Weitzel EK, Bittner GD. 2021. Methylene blue enhances PEG-fusion repair of completely severed rat sciatic nerves. Neural Regeneration Research. 16(10):2056-2063. doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01953-8. PMID: 33642394; PMCID: PMC8343334.

Kelly C. S. Roballo, Jason P. Gigley, Tyler A. Smith, George D. Bittner, Jared S. Bushman. 2022. Morphological, Functional, and Immunological Peculiarities of Peripheral Nerve Allografts. Nerve Regeneration Research. 17: 721-747. https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.322445

George D. Bittner, Jared S. Bushman, Cameron L. Ghergherehchi, Kelly C.S. Roballo, Jamie T. Shores, Tyler A. Smith. 2021. Typical and Atypical Properties of Peripheral Nerve Allografts Enable Novel Strategies to Repair Segmental Loss Injuries. Journal of Neuroinflammation. In Press.

In Preparation

Tyler A. Smith, Cameron L. Ghergherehchi, Kelly C.S. Roballo, Michelle Mikesh, Haley O. Tucker, Jared A. Bushman, George D. Bittner. 2022. Polyethylene glycol treatment of peripheral nerve allografts without axonal fusion diminishes T cell infiltration and MHC expression, but does not prevent Wallerian degeneration-associated cellular responses J. Neuroinflammation. November 2021 expected submission

         T.A. Smith, Cameron L. Ghergherehchi, Kelly C.S. Roballo, Michelle Mikesh, Haley O. Tucker, Jaime T Shores, Joseph Alderete, Erik K. Weitzel, Jared A. Bushman, George D. Bittner. 2022. Immunotolerance of polyethylene glycol-fused sciatic allografts from Brown-Norway rats into Lewis host rats. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience.