ADP-ribosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational addition of either monomers or polymers of ADP-ribose to target proteins by ADP-ribosyltransferases, usually by interferon-inducible diphtheria toxin-like enzymes known as PARPs. While several PARPs have known antiviral activities, these activities are mostly independent of ADP-ribosylation. Consequently, less is known about the antiviral effects of ADP-ribosylation. Several viral families, including Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, encode for macrodomain proteins that bind to and hydrolyze ADP-ribose from proteins and are critical for optimal replication and virulence. These results suggest that macrodomains counter cellular ADP-ribosylation, but whether PARPs or, alternatively, other ADP-ribosyltransferases cause this modification is not clear. Here we show that pan-PARP inhibition enhanced replication and inhibited interferon production in primary macrophages infected with macrodomain-mutant but not wild-type coronavirus. Specifically, knockdown of two abundantly expressed PARPs, PARP12 and PARP14, led to increased replication of mutant but did not significantly affect wild-type virus. PARP14 was also important for the induction of interferon in mouse and human cells, indicating a critical role for this PARP in the regulation of innate immunity. In summary, these data demonstrate that the macrodomain is required to prevent PARP-mediated inhibition of coronavirus replication and enhancement of interferon production.
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) induces breast cancer in mice in the absence of known virally-encoded oncogenes. Tumorigenesis by MMTV is thought to occur primarily through insertional mutagenesis, leading to the activation of cellular proto-oncogenes and outgrowth of selected cells. Here we investigated whether MMTV encodes microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or modulates host miRNAs that could contribute to tumorigenesis. High throughput small RNA sequencing analysis of MMTV-infected cells and MMTV-induced mammary tumors demonstrates that MMTV does not encode miRNAs. However, infected tissues have altered levels of several host miRNAs, including increased expression of members of the oncogenic miRNA cluster, miR-17-92. Notably, similar changes in miRNA levels have been previously reported in human breast cancers. Combined, our results demonstrate that virally encoded miRNAs do not contribute to MMTV-mediated tumorigenesis, but that changes in specific host miRNAs in infected cells may contribute to virus replication and tumor biology.
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) can cause serious disease in immunosuppressed hosts. Several pathogenic PyVs encode microRNAs (miRNAs), small RNAs that regulate gene expression via RNA silencing. Despite recent advances in understanding the activities of PyV miRNAs, the biological functions of PyV miRNAs during infections are mostly unknown. The studies presented here used murine polyomavirus (MuPyV) as a model to assess the roles of the PyV miRNAs in a natural host. This analysis revealed that a MuPyV mutant that is unable to express miRNAs has enhanced viral DNA loads in select tissues at late times after infection. This is consistent with the PyV miRNAs functioning to reduce viral replication during the persistent phase of infection in a natural host. Additionally, the MuPyV miRNA locus promotes viruria during the acute phase of infection as evidenced by a defect in shedding during infection with the miRNA mutant virus. The viruria defect of the miRNA mutant virus could be rescued by infecting mice. These findings implicate the miRNA locus as functioning in both the persistent and acute phases of infection and suggest a role for MuPyV miRNA in evading the adaptive immune response. MicroRNAs are expressed by diverse viruses, but for only a few is there any understanding of their function. PyVs can cause serious disease in immunocompromised hosts. Therefore, increased knowledge of how these viruses interact with the immune response is of clinical relevance. Here we show a novel activity for a viral miRNA locus in promoting virus shedding. This work indicates that in addition to any role for the PyV miRNA locus in long-term persistence, it also has biological activity during the acute phase. As this mutant phenotype is alleviated by infection of mice lacking an adaptive immune response, our work also connects the activity of the PyV miRNA locus to the immune response. Given that PyV-associated disease is associated with alterations in the immune response, our findings help to better understand how the balance between PyVs and the immune response becomes altered in pathogenic states.
Seventy percent of people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) will suffer chronic infection, putting them at risk for liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The full range of mechanisms that render some people more susceptible to chronic infection and liver disease is still being elucidated. XRN exonucleases can restrict HCV replication and may help to resolve HCV infections. However, it is unknown how 5' triphosphorylated HCV transcripts, primary products of the viral polymerase, become susceptible to attack by 5' monophosphate-specific XRNs. Here, we show that the 5' RNA triphosphatase DUSP11 acts on HCV transcripts, rendering them susceptible to XRN-mediated attack. Cells lacking DUSP11 show substantially enhanced HCV replication, and this effect is diminished when XRN expression is reduced. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a target of current phase II anti-HCV drugs, is known to protect HCV transcripts against XRNs. We show that HCV replication is less dependent on miR-122 in cells lacking DUSP11. Combined, these results implicate DUSP11 as an important component of XRN-mediated restriction of HCV.
Dual-specificity phosphatase 11 (DUSP11) is a conserved protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) in metazoans. The cellular substrates and physiologic activities of DUSP11 remain largely unknown. In nematodes, DUSP11 is required for normal development and RNA interference against endogenous RNAs (endo-RNAi) via molecular mechanisms that are not well understood. However, mammals lack analogous endo-RNAi pathways and consequently, a role for DUSP11 in mammalian RNA silencing was unanticipated. Recent work from our laboratory demonstrated that DUSP11 activity alters the silencing potential of noncanonical viral miRNAs in mammalian cells. Our studies further uncovered direct cellular substrates of DUSP11 and suggest that DUSP11 is part of regulatory pathway that controls the abundance of select triphosphorylated noncoding RNAs. Here, we highlight recent findings and present new data that advance understanding of mammalian DUSP11 during gene silencing and discuss the emerging biological activities of DUSP11 in mammalian cells.
Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are effective in generating stable repression of gene expression. RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) type III promoters (U6 or H1) are typically used to drive shRNA expression. While useful for some knockdown applications, the robust expression of U6/H1-driven shRNAs can induce toxicity and generate heterogeneous small RNAs with undesirable off-target effects. Additionally, typical U6/H1 promoters encompass the majority of the ∼270 base pairs (bp) of vector space required for shRNA expression. This can limit the efficacy and/or number of delivery vector options, particularly when delivery of multiple gene/shRNA combinations is required. Here, we develop a compact shRNA (cshRNA) expression system based on retroviral microRNA (miRNA) gene architecture that uses RNAP III type II promoters. We demonstrate that cshRNAs coded from as little as 100 bps of total coding space can precisely generate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that are active in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We provide an algorithm with a user-friendly interface to design cshRNAs for desired target genes. This cshRNA expression system reduces the coding space required for shRNA expression by >2-fold as compared to the typical U6/H1 promoters, which may facilitate therapeutic RNAi applications where delivery vector space is limiting.
RNA silencing is a conserved eukaryotic gene expression regulatory mechanism mediated by small RNAs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the accumulation of a distinct class of siRNAs synthesized by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) requires the PIR-1 phosphatase. However, the function of PIR-1 in RNAi has remained unclear. Since mammals lack an analogous siRNA biogenesis pathway, an RNA silencing role for the mammalian PIR-1 homolog (dual specificity phosphatase 11 [DUSP11]) was unexpected. Here, we show that the RNA triphosphatase activity of DUSP11 promotes the RNA silencing activity of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcribed precursors. Our results demonstrate that DUSP11 converts the 5' triphosphate of miRNA precursors to a 5' monophosphate, promoting loading of derivative 5p miRNAs into Argonaute proteins via a Dicer-coupled 5' monophosphate-dependent strand selection mechanism. This mechanistic insight supports a likely shared function for PIR-1 in C. elegans Furthermore, we show that DUSP11 modulates the 5' end phosphate group and/or steady-state level of several host RNAP III transcripts, including vault RNAs and Alu transcripts. This study shows that steady-state levels of select noncoding RNAs are regulated by DUSP11 and defines a previously unknown portal for small RNA-mediated silencing in mammals, revealing that DUSP11-dependent RNA silencing activities are shared among diverse metazoans.
Despite increasing interest in the biology of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), few functions have been uncovered for viral ncRNAs in vivo. In their recent article in mSphere, Feldman and colleagues [E. R. Feldman et al., mSphere 1(2):e00105-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mSphere.00105-15] demonstrate a highly specific activity of a gammaherpesviral ncRNA in viral dissemination and establishment of latent infection. Their work highlights several interesting features that should be informative to future studies of viral ncRNA.
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are associated with tumors including Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Several PyVs encode microRNAs (miRNAs) but to date no abundant PyV miRNAs have been reported in tumors. To better understand the function of the Merkel cell PyV (MCPyV) miRNA, we examined phylogenetically-related viruses for miRNA expression. We show that two primate PyVs and the more distantly-related raccoon PyV (RacPyV) encode miRNAs that share genomic position and partial sequence identity with MCPyV miRNAs. Unlike MCPyV miRNA in MCC, RacPyV miRNA is highly abundant in raccoon tumors. RacPyV miRNA negatively regulates reporters of early viral (T antigen) transcripts, yet robust viral miRNA expression is tolerated in tumors. We also identify raccoon miRNAs expressed in RacPyV-associated neuroglial brain tumors, including several likely oncogenic miRNAs (oncomiRs). This work describes the first PyV miRNA abundantly expressed in tumors and is consistent with a possible role for both host and viral miRNAs in RacPyV-associated tumors.
Many eukaryotes and some viruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs), small RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. While most miRNAs are generated through the activity of RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) and subsequent processing by Drosha and Dicer, some viral miRNAs utilize alternative pathways of biogenesis. Some members of the herpesvirus and retrovirus families can direct synthesis of miRNAs through RNAP III transcription rather than RNAP II and can utilize atypical enzymes to generate miRNAs. Though the advantages of alternative miRNA biogenesis remain unclear for herpesviruses, the retroviral miRNA biogenesis routes allow the RNAP II transcribed retroviral genome to escape Drosha cleavage while still expressing abundant, biologically-active miRNAs. These RNAP III-derived miRNAs have unique characteristics that allow for their identification and characterization. In this article, we describe procedures to predict, validate, and characterize RNAP III-transcribed miRNAs and other small RNAs, while providing resources that are also useful for canonical miRNAs.
In the past two decades, our knowledge of gene regulation has been greatly expanded by the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small (19-24 nt) noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) found in metazoans, plants, and some viruses. They have been shown to regulate many cellular processes, including differentiation, maintenance of homeostasis, apoptosis, and the immune response. At present, there are over 300 known viral miRNAs encoded by diverse virus families. One well-characterized function of some viral miRNAs is the regulation of viral transcripts. Host miRNAs can also regulate viral gene expression. We propose that viruses take advantage of both host and viral ncRNA regulation to balance replication and infectious state (for example, latent versus lytic infection). As miRNA regulation can be reversed upon certain cellular stresses, we hypothesize that ncRNAs can serve viruses as barometers for cellular stress.
Processing of primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) stem-loops by the Drosha-DGCR8 complex is the initial step in miRNA maturation and crucial for miRNA function. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism that determines the Drosha cleavage site of pri-miRNAs has remained unclear. Two prevalent but seemingly conflicting models propose that Drosha-DGCR8 anchors to and directs cleavage a fixed distance from either the basal single-stranded (ssRNA) or the terminal loop. However, recent studies suggest that the basal ssRNA and/or the terminal loop may influence the Drosha cleavage site dependent upon the sequence/structure of individual pri-miRNAs. Here, using a panel of closely related pri-miRNA variants, we further examine the role of pri-miRNA structures on Drosha cleavage site selection in cells. Our data reveal that both the basal ssRNA and terminal loop influence the Drosha cleavage site within three pri-miRNAs, the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) pri-miRNA, pri-miR-30a, and pri-miR-16. In addition to the flanking ssRNA regions, we show that an internal loop within the SV40 pri-miRNA stem strongly influences Drosha cleavage position and efficiency. We further demonstrate that the positions of the internal loop, basal ssRNA, and the terminal loop of the SV40 pri-miRNA cooperatively coordinate Drosha cleavage position and efficiency. Based on these observations, we propose that the pri-miRNA stem, defined by internal and flanking structural elements, guides the binding position of Drosha-DGCR8, which consequently determines the cleavage site. This study provides mechanistic insight into pri-miRNA processing in cells that has numerous biological implications and will assist in refining Drosha-dependent shRNA design.
Establishing lifelong infection and periodically shedding infectious progeny is a successful strategy employed by several persistent pathogens. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Pan et al. (2014) demonstrate that a cell-type-specific host microRNA can restrict gene expression and pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus 1, thereby promoting long-term infection.
Transcripts possessing a 5'-triphosphate are a hallmark of viral transcription and can trigger the host antiviral response. 5'-triphosphates are also found on common host transcripts transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAP III), yet how these transcripts remain non-immunostimulatory is incompletely understood. Most microRNAs (miRNAs) are 5'-monophosphorylated as a result of sequential endonucleolytic processing by Drosha and Dicer from longer RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-transcribed primary transcripts. In contrast, bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expresses subgenomic RNAP III transcripts that give rise to miRNAs independent of Drosha processing. Here, we demonstrate that each BLV pre-miRNA is directly transcribed by RNAP III from individual, compact RNAP III type II genes. Thus, similar to manmade RNAP III-generated short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), the BLV pre-miRNAs are initially 5'-triphosphorylated. Nonetheless, the derivative 5p miRNAs and shRNA-generated 5p small RNAs (sRNAs) possess a 5'-monophosphate. Our enzymatic characterization and small RNA sequencing data demonstrate that BLV 5p miRNAs are co-terminal with 5'-triphosphorylated miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). Thus, these results identify a 5'-tri-phosphatase activity that is involved in the biogenesis of BLV miRNAs and shRNA-generated sRNAs. This work advances our understanding of retroviral miRNA and shRNA biogenesis and may have implications regarding the immunostimulatory capacity of RNAP III transcripts.
UNLABELLED: Several different polyomaviruses (PyVs) encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate viral as well as host gene expression. However, the functions of polyomaviral miRNAs, particularly during in vivo infection, remain poorly understood. Here we identify rare naturally arising PyVs that are severely attenuated or null for miRNA expression. We identify hypomorphic or null strains for miRNA expression from rhesus macaque simian virus 40 (SV40) and human JC virus. These strains were isolated from immunocompromised hosts and derive from insertions or deletions in the viral DNA that preserve the amino acid reading frame of opposing-strand large T antigen gene. Characterization of the SV40 miRNA hypomorph, K661, shows that it is inhibited at the early miRNA biogenesis step of Drosha-mediated processing. Despite having a nonrearranged enhancer, which a previous study has shown renders some PyVs more susceptible to the autoregulatory activities of the miRNA, restoring miRNA expression to K661 has little effect on virus growth in either immortalized or primary monkey kidney cells. Thus, in addition to any effect of accompanying genomic elements, these results suggest that the cellular context also determines susceptibility to PyV miRNA-mediated effects. Combined, these results demonstrate that polyomaviruses lacking miRNAs can arise infrequently and that the functional importance of polyomaviral miRNAs is context dependent, consistent with an activity connected to the immune status of the host. IMPORTANCE: Diverse virus families encode miRNAs, yet much remains unknown about viral miRNA function and contribution to the infectious cycle. Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are small DNA viruses, long known to be important as etiological agents of rare diseases and valuable models of DNA virus infection. Here, in immunosuppressed hosts, we uncover rare naturally arising variants of different PyVs that have lost the ability to express miRNAs. This represents some of the only known natural viruses to have lost miRNA expression. By probing the biogenesis pathways of these variants, we uncover that miRNA expression is lost via small insertions or deletions that render the transcripts resistant to early steps of miRNA biogenesis while preserving the reading frame of the opposing T antigen transcripts. Overall, our study informs how miRNA genes evolve/devolve in viruses and suggests that miRNA function is exquisitely dependent not only on viral genomic context but also on the cellular and host environment.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play regulatory roles in diverse processes in both eukaryotic hosts and their viruses, yet fundamental questions remain about which viruses code for miRNAs and the functions that they serve. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) of Old World monkeys and apes can zoonotically infect humans and, by ill-defined mechanisms, take up lifelong infections in their hosts. Here, we report that SFVs encode multiple miRNAs via a noncanonical mode of biogenesis. The primary SFV miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) and take multiple forms, including some that are cleaved by Drosha. However, these miRNAs are generated in a context-dependent fashion, as longer RNAP II transcripts spanning this region are resistant to Drosha cleavage. This suggests that the virus may avoid any fitness penalty that could be associated with viral genome/transcript cleavage. Two SFV miRNAs share sequence similarity and functionality with notable host miRNAs, the lymphoproliferative miRNA miR-155 and the innate immunity suppressor miR-132. These results have important implications regarding foamy virus biology, viral miRNAs, and the development of retroviral-based vectors. IMPORTANCE Fundamental questions remain about which viruses encode miRNAs and their associated functions. Currently, few natural viruses with RNA genomes have been reported to encode miRNAs. Simian foamy viruses are retroviruses that are prevalent in nonhuman host populations, and some can zoonotically infect humans who hunt primates or work as animal caretakers. We identify a cluster of miRNAs encoded by SFV. Characterization of these miRNAs reveals evolutionarily conserved, unconventional mechanisms to generate small RNAs. Several SFV miRNAs share sequence similarity and functionality with host miRNAs, including the oncogenic miRNA miR-155 and innate immunity suppressor miR-132. Strikingly, unrelated herpesviruses also tap into one or both of these same regulatory pathways, implying relevance to a broad range of viruses. These findings provide new insights with respect to foamy virus biology and vectorology.