Laser light and high-speed cameras can help researchers observe the behavior of oil droplets within a laboratory-simulated oil plume and interpret how the oil subsequently may move through the water column.
Researchers surveyed oil spill studies between 1968 and 2015 to characterize the field and describe changes. The team found that, despite its episodic nature, oil spill research is a rapidly expanding field with a growth rate greater than science as a whole. Research attention shifted dramatically to the Gulf of Mexico following Deepwater Horizon, rising from 2% of studies in 2004-2008 to 61% in 2014-2015, making Deepwater Horizon the most studied oil spill. The analyses provided insights into research trends and gaps, particularly a long-
Yesterday, February 14, 2017, DROPPS hosted the South Texas Coastal Zone Area Committee Meeting at the University of Texas Marine Science Institute in Port Aransas, Texas. These meetings are held quarterly for the response community to update and discuss response plans, case studies of recent spills, overviews of upcoming and past trainings, and more. Yesterday's meeting featured talks from the
Scientists developed a new model to predict how much oil from a spill might bind to sediments or organic matter in the water column. The model, A-DROP, introduces a formula that accounts for oil stabilization by particles, particle hydrophobicity, and oil-particle size ratio. The model advances our understanding about the natural removal of oil and contributes knowledge towards development of oil spill mitigation techniques that incorporate oil-particle aggregates. The researchers published their findings in Marine Pollution Bulletin:
Scientists from the Dispersion Research on Oil: Physics and Plankton Studies (DROPPS) research consortium at The University of Texas Marine Science Institute were on site to observe a recent two-day drill that was organized by the CITGO Corpus Christi Refinery. The drill involved simulating a 55,000 barrel spill of sweet crude oil from the Corpus Christi CITGO refinery which made its way into the shipping channel via Tule Lake. Drs. Hernando Bacosa and Sarah Cosgrove now have intimate knowledge about who to contact and how to participate in sampling
Scientists simulated an underwater blowout to analyze the formation, path, and duration of oil plumes. They noted that the simulated blowout formed two plumes, one due to momentum and plume buoyancy and another due to the buoyancy of individual oil droplets separating from the first plume.
They also observed that oil plumes form through a two-step process: first, relatively large ligaments of connected oil develop a few inches from the release point in a process called the “primary breakup” and are then entrained back into the plume for their “secondary breakup” into droplets. They
There have been two large scale oil spills over the past 4 decades in the Gulf of Mexico. The Ixtoc I spill in 1979 off the coast of Carmen, Mexico released 3.5 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf, and the Macondo wellhead blowout off the coast of Louisiana, USA in 2010 released 3.19 million barrels of oil into the Gulf. Both of these incidents resulted in scientists coming together to gather the data needed to understand the fate of the oil, the disturbances it caused to the ecosystem, and its impacts on humans. One of the largest drivers of research efforts surrounding the 2010
Scientists from the University of Texas at Austin assessed photooxidation and biodegradation rates on different hydrocarbon groups.
They found that photooxidation was the main driver for degrading aromatic hydrocarbons, and biodegradation was the key process controlling the degradation of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes). Exposure to sunlight, however, inhibited the biodegradation of the branched alkanes, pristane and phytane.The researchers published their findings in the April 2015 Marine Pollution Bulletin: