Publications by Year: 2017

Susannah L Hewitt, Jason B Wong, Ji-hoon Lee, Mayilaadumveettil Nishana, Hongxi Chen, Marc Coussens, Suzzette M Arnal, Lili M Blumenberg, David B Roth, Tanya T Paull, and Jane A Skok. 2AD. “The Conserved ATM Kinase RAG2-S365 Phosphorylation Site Limits Cleavage Events in Individual Cells Independent of Any Repair Defect.” Cell Rep, 21, 4, Pp. 979-993. Abstract
Many DNA lesions associated with lymphoid malignancies are linked to off-target cleavage by the RAG1/2 recombinase. However, off-target cleavage has mostly been analyzed in the context of DNA repair defects, confounding any mechanistic understanding of cleavage deregulation. We identified a conserved SQ phosphorylation site on RAG2 365 to 366 that is involved in feedback control of RAG cleavage. Mutation of serine 365 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine permits bi-allelic and bi-locus RAG-mediated breaks in the same cell, leading to reciprocal translocations. This phenomenon is analogous to the phenotype we described for ATM kinase inactivation. Here, we establish deregulated cleavage itself as a driver of chromosomal instability without the associated repair defect. Intriguingly, a RAG2-S365E phosphomimetic rescues the deregulated cleavage of ATM inactivation, reducing the incidence of reciprocal translocations. These data support a model in which feedback control of cleavage and maintenance of genome stability involves ATM-mediated phosphorylation of RAG2.
Sucheta Arora, Rajashree A Deshpande, Martin Budd, Judy Campbell, America Revere, Xiaoming Zhang, Kristina H Schmidt, and Tanya T Paull. 2AD. “Genetic Separation of Sae2 Nuclease Activity from Mre11 Nuclease Functions in Budding Yeast.” Mol Cell Biol, 37, 24. Abstract
Sae2 promotes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in The role of Sae2 is linked to the Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) complex, which is important for the processing of DNA ends into single-stranded substrates for homologous recombination. Sae2 has intrinsic endonuclease activity, but the role of this activity has not been assessed independently from its functions in promoting Mre11 nuclease activity. Here we identify and characterize separation-of-function mutants that lack intrinsic nuclease activity or the ability to promote Mre11 endonucleolytic activity. We find that the ability of Sae2 to promote MRX nuclease functions is important for DNA damage survival, particularly in the absence of Dna2 nuclease activity. In contrast, Sae2 nuclease activity is essential for DNA repair when the Mre11 nuclease is compromised. Resection of DNA breaks is impaired when either Sae2 activity is blocked, suggesting roles for both Mre11 and Sae2 nuclease activities in promoting the processing of DNA ends Finally, both activities of Sae2 are important for sporulation, indicating that the processing of meiotic breaks requires both Mre11 and Sae2 nuclease activities.
Rajashree A Deshpande, Ji-hoon Lee, and Tanya T Paull. 2AD. “Rad50 ATPase activity is regulated by DNA ends and requires coordination of both active sites.” Nucleic Acids Res, 45, 9, Pp. 5255-5268. Abstract
The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1(Xrs2) (MRN/X) complex is critical for the repair and signaling of DNA double strand breaks. The catalytic core of MRN/X comprised of the Mre11 nuclease and Rad50 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) active sites dimerizes through association between the Rad50 ATPase catalytic domains and undergoes extensive conformational changes upon ATP binding. This ATP-bound 'closed' state promotes binding to DNA, tethering DNA ends and ATM activation, but prevents nucleolytic processing of DNA ends, while ATP hydrolysis is essential for Mre11 endonuclease activity at blocked DNA ends. Here we investigate the regulation of ATP hydrolysis as well as the interdependence of the two functional active sites. We find that double-stranded DNA stimulates ATP hydrolysis by hMRN over ∼20-fold in an end-dependent manner. Using catalytic site mutants to create Rad50 dimers with only one functional ATPase site, we find that both ATPase sites are required for the stimulation by DNA. MRN-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA at sites of protein adducts requires ATP hydrolysis at both sites, as does the stimulation of ATM kinase activity. These observations suggest that symmetrical engagement of the Rad50 catalytic head domains with ATP bound at both sites is important for MRN functions in eukaryotic cells.
Yi Zhou, Ji-hoon Lee, Wenxia Jiang, Jennie L Crowe, Shan Zha, and Tanya T Paull. 2AD. “Regulation of the DNA Damage Response by DNA-PKcs Inhibitory Phosphorylation of ATM.” Mol Cell, 65, 1, Pp. 91-104. Abstract
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) regulates the DNA damage response as well as DNA double-strand break repair through homologous recombination. Here we show that ATM is hyperactive when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is chemically inhibited or when the DNA-PKcs gene is deleted in human cells. Pre-incubation of ATM protein with active DNA-PKcs also significantly reduces ATM activity in vitro. We characterize several phosphorylation sites in ATM that are targets of DNA-PKcs and show that phospho-mimetic mutations at these residues significantly inhibit ATM activity and impair ATM signaling upon DNA damage. In contrast, phospho-blocking mutations at one cluster of sites increase the frequency of apoptosis during normal cell growth. DNA-PKcs, which is integral to the non-homologous end joining pathway, thus negatively regulates ATM activity through phosphorylation of ATM. These observations illuminate an important regulatory mechanism for ATM that also controls DNA repair pathway choice.
Logan R Myler, Ignacio F Gallardo, Michael M Soniat, Rajashree A Deshpande, Xenia B Gonzalez, Yoori Kim, Tanya T Paull, and Ilya J Finkelstein. 2AD. “Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals How Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 Initiates DNA Break Repair.” Mol Cell, 67, 5, Pp. 891-898.e4. Abstract
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintaining our genomes. Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and Ku70-Ku80 (Ku) direct distinct DSB repair pathways, but the interplay between these complexes at a DSB remains unclear. Here, we use high-throughput single-molecule microscopy to show that MRN searches for free DNA ends by one-dimensional facilitated diffusion, even on nucleosome-coated DNA. Rad50 binds homoduplex DNA and promotes facilitated diffusion, whereas Mre11 is required for DNA end recognition and nuclease activities. MRN gains access to occluded DNA ends by removing Ku or other DNA adducts via an Mre11-dependent nucleolytic reaction. Next, MRN loads exonuclease 1 (Exo1) onto the free DNA ends to initiate DNA resection. In the presence of replication protein A (RPA), MRN acts as a processivity factor for Exo1, retaining the exonuclease on DNA for long-range resection. Our results provide a mechanism for how MRN promotes homologous recombination on nucleosome-coated DNA.
Justin Wc Leung, Nodar Makharashvili, Poonam Agarwal, Li-Ya Chiu, Renaud Pourpre, Michael B Cammarata, Joe R Cannon, Alana Sherker, Daniel Durocher, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Tanya T Paull, and Kyle M Miller. 2AD. “ZMYM3 regulates BRCA1 localization at damaged chromatin to promote DNA repair.” Genes Dev, 31, 3, Pp. 260-274. Abstract
Chromatin connects DNA damage response factors to sites of damaged DNA to promote the signaling and repair of DNA lesions. The histone H2A variants H2AX, H2AZ, and macroH2A represent key chromatin constituents that facilitate DNA repair. Through proteomic screening of these variants, we identified ZMYM3 (zinc finger, myeloproliferative, and mental retardation-type 3) as a chromatin-interacting protein that promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). ZMYM3 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks through bivalent interactions with both histone and DNA components of the nucleosome. We show that ZMYM3 links the HR factor BRCA1 to damaged chromatin through specific interactions with components of the BRCA1-A subcomplex, including ABRA1 and RAP80. By regulating ABRA1 recruitment to damaged chromatin, ZMYM3 facilitates the fine-tuning of BRCA1 interactions with DNA damage sites and chromatin. Consistent with a role in regulating BRCA1 function, ZMYM3 deficiency results in impaired HR repair and genome instability. Thus, our work identifies a critical chromatin-binding DNA damage response factor, ZMYM3, which modulates BRCA1 functions within chromatin to ensure the maintenance of genome integrity.