Publications by Year: 2015

2015
Jiangwei Zhang, Durga Nand Tripathi, Ji Jing, Angela Alexander, Jinhee Kim, Reid T Powell, Ruhee Dere, Jacqueline Tait-Mulder, Ji-hoon Lee, Tanya T Paull, Raj K Pandita, Vijaya K Charaka, Tej K Pandita, Michael B Kastan, and Cheryl Lyn Walker. 2AD. “ATM functions at the peroxisome to induce pexophagy in response to ROS.” Nat Cell Biol, 17, 10, Pp. 1259-1269. Abstract
Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to ROS, ATM signalling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser 141, which promotes PEX5 monoubiquitylation at Lys 209, and recognition of ubiquitylated PEX5 by the autophagy adaptor protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy.
Nguyen Ngoc Hoa, Junya Kobayashi, Masato Omura, Mayumi Hirakawa, Soo-Hyun Yang, Kenshi Komatsu, Tanya T Paull, Shunichi Takeda, and Hiroyuki Sasanuma. 2AD. “BRCA1 and CtIP Are Both Required to Recruit Dna2 at Double-Strand Breaks in Homologous Recombination.” PLoS One, 10, 4, Pp. e0124495. Abstract
Homologous recombination plays a key role in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs), and thereby significantly contributes to cellular tolerance to radiotherapy and some chemotherapy. DSB repair by homologous recombination is initiated by 5' to 3' strand resection (DSB resection), with nucleases generating the 3' single-strand DNA (3'ssDNA) at DSB sites. Genetic studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrate a two-step DSB resection, wherein CtIP and Mre11 nucleases carry out short-range DSB resection followed by long-range DSB resection done by Dna2 and Exo1 nucleases. Recent studies indicate that CtIP contributes to DSB resection through its non-catalytic role but not as a nuclease. However, it remains elusive how CtIP contributes to DSB resection. To explore the non-catalytic role, we examined the dynamics of Dna2 by developing an immuno-cytochemical method to detect ionizing-radiation (IR)-induced Dna2-subnuclear-focus formation at DSB sites in chicken DT40 and human cell lines. Ionizing-radiation induced Dna2 foci only in wild-type cells, but not in Dna2 depleted cells, with the number of foci reaching its maximum at 30 minutes and being hardly detectable at 120 minutes after IR. Induced foci were detectable in cells in the G2 phase but not in the G1 phase. These observations suggest that Dna2 foci represent the recruitment of Dna2 to DSB sites for DSB resection. Importantly, the depletion of CtIP inhibited the recruitment of Dna2 to DSB sites in both human cells and chicken DT40 cells. Likewise, a defect in breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), which physically interacts with CtIP and contributes to DSB resection, also inhibited the recruitment of Dna2. Moreover, CtIP physically associates with Dna2, and the association is enhanced by IR. We conclude that BRCA1 and CtIP contribute to DSB resection by recruiting Dna2 to damage sites, thus ensuring the robust DSB resection necessary for efficient homologous recombination.
Nodar Makharashvili and Tanya T Paull. 2AD. “CtIP: A DNA damage response protein at the intersection of DNA metabolism.” DNA Repair (Amst), 32, Pp. 75-81. Abstract
The mammalian CtIP protein and its orthologs in other eukaryotes promote the resection of DNA double-strand breaks and are essential for meiotic recombination. Here we review the current literature supporting the role of CtIP in DNA end processing and the importance of CtIP endonuclease activity in DNA repair. We also examine the regulation of CtIP function by post-translational modifications, and its involvement in transcription- and replication-dependent functions through association with other protein complexes. The tumor suppressor function of CtIP likely is dependent on a combination of these roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism.
Balaji Parameswaran, Huai-Chin Chiang, Yunzhe Lu, Julia Coates, Chu-Xia Deng, Richard Baer, Hui-Kuan Lin, Rong Li, Tanya T Paull, and Yanfen Hu. 2AD. “Damage-induced BRCA1 phosphorylation by Chk2 contributes to the timing of end resection.” Cell Cycle, 14, 3, Pp. 437-48. Abstract
The BRCA1 tumor suppressor plays an important role in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair. BRCA1 is phosphorylated by Chk2 kinase upon γ-irradiation, but the role of Chk2 phosphorylation is not understood. Here, we report that abrogation of Chk2 phosphorylation on BRCA1 delays end resection and the dispersion of BRCA1 from DSBs but does not affect the assembly of Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) and CtIP at DSBs. Moreover, we show that BRCA1 is ubiquitinated by SCF(Skp2) and that abrogation of Chk2 phosphorylation impairs its ubiquitination. Our study suggests that BRCA1 is more than a scaffold protein to assemble HR repair proteins at DSBs, but that Chk2 phosphorylation of BRCA1 also serves as a built-in clock for HR repair of DSBs. BRCA1 is known to inhibit Mre11 nuclease activity. SCF(Skp2) activity appears at late G1 and peaks at S/G2, and is known to ubiquitinate phosphodegron motifs. The removal of BRCA1 from DSBs by SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation terminates BRCA1-mediated inhibition of Mre11 nuclease activity, allowing for end resection and restricting the initiation of HR to the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle.
Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates are formed in multiple cellular processes, including DNA replication and recombination. Here, we describe a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assay to quantitate ssDNA intermediates, specifically the 3' ssDNA product of resection at specific DNA double-strand breaks induced by the AsiSI restriction enzyme in human cells. We protect the large mammalian genome from shearing by embedding the cells in low-gelling-point agar during genomic DNA extraction and measure the levels of ssDNA intermediates by qPCR following restriction enzyme digestion. This assay is more quantitative and precise compared with existing immunofluorescence-based methods.
Tanya T Paull. 2AD. “Mechanisms of ATM Activation.” Annu Rev Biochem, 84, Pp. 711-38. Abstract
The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response, and it coordinates checkpoint activation, DNA repair, and metabolic changes in eukaryotic cells in response to DNA double-strand breaks and oxidative stress. Loss of ATM activity in humans results in the pleiotropic neurodegeneration disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. ATM exists in an inactive state in resting cells but can be activated by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex and other factors at sites of DNA breaks. In addition, oxidation of ATM activates the kinase independently of the MRN complex. This review discusses these mechanisms of activation, as well as the posttranslational modifications that affect this process and the cellular factors that affect the efficiency and specificity of ATM activation and substrate phosphorylation. I highlight functional similarities between the activation mechanisms of ATM, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks), and the other PI3K-like kinases, as well as recent structural insights into their regulation.
Prabha Sarangi, Roland Steinacher, Veronika Altmannova, Qiong Fu, Tanya T Paull, Lumir Krejci, Matthew C Whitby, and Xiaolan Zhao. 2AD. “Sumoylation influences DNA break repair partly by increasing the solubility of a conserved end resection protein.” PLoS Genet, 11, 1, Pp. e1004899. Abstract
Protein modifications regulate both DNA repair levels and pathway choice. How each modification achieves regulatory effects and how different modifications collaborate with each other are important questions to be answered. Here, we show that sumoylation regulates double-strand break repair partly by modifying the end resection factor Sae2. This modification is conserved from yeast to humans, and is induced by DNA damage. We mapped the sumoylation site of Sae2 to a single lysine in its self-association domain. Abolishing Sae2 sumoylation by mutating this lysine to arginine impaired Sae2 function in the processing and repair of multiple types of DNA breaks. We found that Sae2 sumoylation occurs independently of its phosphorylation, and the two modifications act in synergy to increase soluble forms of Sae2. We also provide evidence that sumoylation of the Sae2-binding nuclease, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, further increases end resection. These findings reveal a novel role for sumoylation in DNA repair by regulating the solubility of an end resection factor. They also show that collaboration between different modifications and among multiple substrates leads to a stronger biological effect.