Daskaleros PA, Payne SM. Cloning the gene for Congo red binding in Shigella flexneri. Infect Immun. 48 (1) :165-8.Abstract
The ability to bind the dye Congo red from agar medium is associated with virulence of Shigella species. DNA sequences conferring this property have been cloned from a large, 140-kilobase plasmid of Shigella flexneri into a plasmid vector. This recombinant plasmid does not fully restore virulence to S. flexneri isolates which have lost the large plasmid. This indicates that other genes present on the 140-kilobase plasmid must also be required for virulence of S. flexneri. The cloned fragment contains a copy of the insertion sequence IS1 closely linked to the gene for Congo red binding.
Sigel SP, Stoebner JA, Payne SM. Iron-vibriobactin transport system is not required for virulence of Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 47 (2) :360-2.Abstract
The possible requirement of a functional siderophore (vibriobactin)-mediated iron transport system in the pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae was determined. Two mutants of V. cholerae defective in the iron-vibriobactin transport system were examined for their ability to multiply and elicit diarrhea in infant mice. One mutant, 40130, was unable to synthesize vibriobactin. The second mutant, 1510, was able to synthesize, but not transport, the siderophore. Both mutants retained the ability to multiply and produce disease in the infant mouse, and virulence was indistinguishable from the parent strains. This indicates that a functional iron-vibriobactin transport system is not essential for cholera pathogenesis. These mutants, like the wild-type strains, were found to have a ferric citrate iron uptake system and could utilize citrate or asparagine for growth in low-iron medium. Compounds of this type may increase the availability of iron to V. cholerae in the host.
Lawlor KM, Payne SM. Aerobactin genes in Shigella spp. J Bacteriol. 160 (1) :266-72.Abstract
Aerobactin, a hydroxamate iron transport compound, is synthesized by some, but not all, Shigella species. Conjugation and hybridization studies indicated that the genes for the synthesis and transport of aerobactin are linked and are found on the chromosome of Shigella flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. The genes were not found in S. dysenteriae. A number of aerobactin synthesis mutants and transport mutants have been isolated. The most common mutations are deletions of the biosynthesis or biosynthesis and transport genes. The Shigella aerobactin genes share considerable homology with the E. coli ColV aerobactin genes. On the ColV plasmid and in the Shigella chromosome, the aerobactin genes are associated with a repetitive sequence which has been identified as IS1.
Griffiths GL, Sigel SP, Payne SM, Neilands JB. Vibriobactin, a siderophore from Vibrio cholerae. J Biol Chem. 259 (1) :383-5.Abstract
A novel siderophore (microbial iron transport compound) has been isolated from low iron cultures of Vibrio cholerae. Belonging to the catecholamide family of chelators, it has been shown to contain three residues of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and two residues of threonine. Both threonine moieties are present in the form of oxazoline rings. Furthermore, the polyamine backbone of the molecule was proved to be not spermidine, but the rare N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, norspermidine. The structure of the new siderophore has been determined to be N-[3-(2,3-dihydroxybenzamido)propyl]-1, 3-bis[2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-trans-5-methyl-2-oxazoline-4-carboxamido]prop ane. The compound has been given the trivial name vibriobactin. Mutants defective in the synthesis and utilization of vibriobactin were isolated. In an iron-limited environment V. cholerae was found to respond more strongly to vibriobactin, agrobactin, and ferrichrome than to enterobactin.
Payne SM, Niesel DW, Peixotto SS, Lawlor KM. Expression of hydroxamate and phenolate siderophores by Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 155 (3) :949-55.Abstract
Shigella flexneri strains were assayed for the ability to synthesize and utilize phenolate and hydroxamate siderophores. The hydroxamate aerobactin was synthesized by all isolates tested, whereas phenolates were only rarely produced. Expression of aerobactin was accompanied by production of a single iron-regulated outer membrane protein (Mr = 74,000). This protein was not produced by a mutant defective in aerobactin utilization and may serve as the aerobactin receptor. Phenolate (enterobactin)-producing strains synthesized three additional outer membrane proteins (Mr = 74,000, 81,000, and 83,000) in response to iron starvation. These proteins are the same apparent size as those produced by Escherichia coli K-12 strains. Ent sequences are apparently present in strains which do not synthesize this compound. Although normally silent, ent genes can be activated in Ent- strains to produce Ent+ variants. These laboratory variants are phenotypically indistinguishable from clinical Ent+ isolates.
Sigel SP, Payne SM. Effect of iron limitation on growth, siderophore production, and expression of outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 150 (1) :148-55.Abstract
Vibrio cholerae strains secrete a phenolate-type siderophore when grown in low-iron medium. The siderophore was detected as early as 3.5 h after downshift to iron-poor medium, and it continued to accumulate in the medium as the cells entered stationary phase. Two clinical isolates and an environmental isolate were examined for the amount of siderophore produced. The environmental isolate produced more siderophore and continued to secrete it at concentrations of iron that repressed synthesis in the clinical isolates. Concomitant with production of siderophore, at least six new proteins were seen in the outer membranes of iron starved cells. One of the proteins was large (200,000 Mr [220K]) and appeared to be loosely associated with the outer membrane. The other five proteins had approximate Mr values of 77K, 76K, 75K, 73K, and 62K. The 62K protein, like the 40K major outer membrane protein, was heat modifiable. One or more of these proteins may be a component of the receptor for the iron-siderophore complex.
Payne SM. Synthesis and utilization of siderophores by Shigella flexneri. J Bacteriol. 143 (3) :1420-4.Abstract
Strains of Shigella flexneri secrete a hydroxamate-type siderophore when grown in low-iron media. This hydroxamate appears to be identical with aerobactin, a siderophore synthesized by Aerobacter aerogenes. In contrast to other enteric bacteria, S. flexneri did not produce detectable phenolate siderophores, although it could utilize an exogenously supplied phenolate.