Publications by Year: 1987

Daskaleros PA, Payne SM. Congo red binding phenotype is associated with hemin binding and increased infectivity of Shigella flexneri in the HeLa cell model. Infect Immun. 55 (6) :1393-8.Abstract
Wild-type isolates of Shigella flexneri bind the dye Congo red from solid media, thus producing red (Crb+) colonies. Mutants which fail to bind the dye produce white colonies (Crb-) and are avirulent in a variety of systems. In S. flexneri the ability to bind Congo red correlates with the ability to bind hemin and protoporphyrin IX. Binding of hemin by Crb+ S. flexneri was observed both in solid media and in liquid assays. Results of competition experiments suggest that Congo red and hemin bind to the same site on the bacterial cell and are retained on the cell surface. Binding of hemin by Crb+ S. flexneri is independent of hemin transport since both Crb+ and Crb- cells can utilize hemin as a sole source of iron. Both Crb- and Crb- organisms were able to grow in HeLa cell lysates, indicating that the gene(s) that is responsible for Congo red binding does not play a role in the acquisition of intracellular heme iron. By using the HeLa cell invasion system, the effect of hemin prebinding on the invasiveness of Crb+ S. flexneri was determined. Crb+ cells which had prebound hemin exhibited increased invasiveness, indicating a possible role for the crb gene product in the initial stages of invasion by S. flexneri.
Lawlor KM, Daskaleros PA, Robinson RE, Payne SM. Virulence of iron transport mutants of Shigella flexneri and utilization of host iron compounds. Infect Immun. 55 (3) :594-9.Abstract
Mutants of Shigella flexneri defective in aerobactin-mediated iron transport were assayed for virulence in several model systems. A Tn5 insertion mutant was invasive in HeLa cells, lethal in the chicken embryo, and produced keratoconjunctivitis in the guinea pig, indicating little or no loss of ability to invade and multiply intracellularly. Although the mutant failed to grow in low-iron medium in vitro, growth equivalent to that of the wild type was observed in HeLa cell lysates. Thus, there appears to be sufficient available iron inside the HeLa cell to allow growth in the absence of siderophore synthesis. Possible host iron sources were tested, and both the mutant and wild type utilized hemin or hematin as a sole source of iron. Only the wild-type, aerobactin-producing strain could remove iron from transferrin or lactoferrin. Two deletion mutants were also assayed for virulence and were found to be avirulent for the chicken embryo. These deletions encompass flanking sequences as well as the aerobactin genes; therefore, adjacent genes may be required for virulence.
Marolda CL, Valvano MA, Lawlor KM, Payne SM, Crosa JH. Flanking and internal regions of chromosomal genes mediating aerobactin iron uptake systems in enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. J Gen Microbiol. 133 (8) :2269-78.Abstract
We have investigated the presence of the aerobactin system and the location of the aerobactin genes in enteroinvasive strains of Escherichia coli. Also, we cloned the aerobactin region and its flanking sequences from the chromosome of a strain of Shigella flexneri and compared the molecular organization of the aerobactin genes in the two genera. Of the 11 enteroinvasive E. coli strains studied, 5 possessed the aerobactin genes, which were located on the chromosome in each case. These strains produced and utilized aerobactin and also were susceptible to the bacteriocin cloacin-DF13. Restriction endonuclease mapping and hybridization experiments showed that the regions corresponding to the aerobactin-specific sequences were very similar in both enteroinvasive E. coli and S. flexneri. However, differences were found in the region corresponding to the aerobactin receptor gene. The regions flanking the aerobactin system in enteroinvasive E. coli and S. flexneri exhibited some similarities but were different from those in pColV-K30. Under iron-limiting conditions, aerobactin-producing enteroinvasive E. coli and S. flexneri synthesized outer-membrane proteins of 76 and 77 kDa, respectively, which cross-reacted immunologically with rabbit antiserum raised against the 74 kDa pColV-K30-encoded ferric aerobactin receptor.